Loss of the growth-suppressive effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has been demonstrated to promote pulmonary arterial endothelial cell dysfunction and induce pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation, leading to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MicroRNAs (miRs) mediate higher order regulation of cellular function through coordinated modulation of mRNA targets; however, miR expression is altered by disease development and drug therapy. Here, we examined treatment-naive patients and experimental models of PAH and identified a reduction in the levels of miR-140-5p. Inhibition of miR-140-5p promoted PASMC proliferation and migration in vitro. In rat models of PAH, nebulized delivery of miR-140-5p mimic prevented the development of PAH and attenuated the progression of established PAH. Network and pathway analysis identified SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (SMURF1) as a key miR-140-5p target and regulator of BMP signaling. Evaluation of human tissue revealed that SMURF1 is increased in patients with PAH. miR-140-5p mimic or SMURF1 knockdown in PASMCs altered BMP signaling, further supporting these factors as regulators of BMP signaling. Finally,
Alexander M.K. Rothman, Nadine D. Arnold, Josephine A. Pickworth, James Iremonger, Loredana Ciuclan, Robert Allen, Sabine Guth-Gundel, Mark Southwood, Nicholas W. Morrell, Matthew Thomas, Sheila E. Francis, David J. Rowlands, Allan Lawrie
The development of pathologic mucus, which is not readily cleared from the airways, is an important contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with asthma. It is not clear how the major airway mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B are organized within the mucus gel or how this gel contributes to airway obstruction in asthma. Here, we demonstrated that mucus plugs from individuals with fatal asthma are heterogeneous gels with distinct MUC5AC- and MUC5B-containing domains. Stimulation of cultured human bronchial epithelial cells with IL-13, a key mediator in asthma, induced the formation of heterogeneous mucus gels and dramatically impaired mucociliary transport. Impaired transport was not associated with defects in ciliary function but instead was related to tethering of MUC5AC-containing mucus gel domains to mucus-producing cells in the epithelium. Replacement of tethered mucus with untethered mucus restored mucociliary transport. Together, our results indicate that tethering of MUC5AC-containing domains to the epithelium causes mucostasis and likely represents a major cause of mucus plugging in asthma.
Luke R. Bonser, Lorna Zlock, Walter Finkbeiner, David J. Erle
Matthew C. Frise, Hung-Yuan Cheng, Annabel H. Nickol, M. Kate Curtis, Karen A. Pollard, David J. Roberts, Peter J. Ratcliffe, Keith L. Dorrington, Peter A. Robbins
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases globally and can be divided into presenting with or without an immune response. Current therapies have little effect on nonimmune disease, and the mechanisms that drive this type of asthma are poorly understood. Here, we have shown that loss of the transcription factors forkhead box P1 (
Shanru Li, Cynthia Koziol-White, Joseph Jude, Meiqi Jiang, Hengjiang Zhao, Gaoyuan Cao, Edwin Yoo, William Jester, Michael P. Morley, Su Zhou, Yi Wang, Min Min Lu, Reynold A. Panettieri Jr., Edward E. Morrisey
Influenza A viruses (IAV) can cause lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is characterized by accumulation of excessive fluid (edema) in the alveolar airspaces and leads to hypoxemia and death if not corrected. Clearance of excess edema fluid is driven mostly by the alveolar epithelial Na,K-ATPase and is crucial for survival of patients with ARDS. We therefore investigated whether IAV infection alters Na,K-ATPase expression and function in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and the ability of the lung to clear edema. IAV infection reduced Na,K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of human and murine AECs and in distal lung epithelium of infected mice. Moreover, induced Na,K-ATPase improved alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in IAV-infected mice. We identified a paracrine cell communication network between infected and noninfected AECs and alveolar macrophages that leads to decreased alveolar epithelial Na,K-ATPase function and plasma membrane abundance and inhibition of AFC. We determined that the IAV-induced reduction of Na,K-ATPase is mediated by a host signaling pathway that involves epithelial type I IFN and an IFN-dependent elevation of macrophage TNF-related apoptosis–inducing ligand (TRAIL). Our data reveal that interruption of this cellular crosstalk improves edema resolution, which is of biologic and clinical importance to patients with IAV-induced lung injury.
Christin Peteranderl, Luisa Morales-Nebreda, Balachandar Selvakumar, Emilia Lecuona, István Vadász, Rory E. Morty, Carole Schmoldt, Julia Bespalowa, Thorsten Wolff, Stephan Pleschka, Konstantin Mayer, Stefan Gattenloehner, Ludger Fink, Juergen Lohmeyer, Werner Seeger, Jacob I. Sznajder, Gökhan M. Mutlu, G.R. Scott Budinger, Susanne Herold
Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3– concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator–dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF.
Xiao Xiao Tang, Lynda S. Ostedgaard, Mark J. Hoegger, Thomas O. Moninger, Philip H. Karp, James D. McMenimen, Biswa Choudhury, Ajit Varki, David A. Stoltz, Michael J. Welsh
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) affects 55%–77% of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and occurs even in the absence of asthma. While asthma increases SCD morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms underlying the high AHR prevalence in a hemoglobinopathy remain unknown. We hypothesized that placenta growth factor (PlGF), an erythroblast-secreted factor that is elevated in SCD, mediates AHR. In allergen-exposed mice, loss of
Marthe-Sandrine Eiymo Mwa Mpollo, Eric B. Brandt, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, Paritha I. Arumugam, Swati Tiwari, Anastacia Loberg, Devin Pillis, Tilat Rizvi, Mark Lindsey, Bart Jonck, Peter Carmeliet, Vijay K. Kalra, Timothy D. Le Cras, Nancy Ratner, Marsha Wills-Karp, Gurjit K. Khurana Hershey, Punam Malik
Regulation of neutrophil activity is critical for immune evasion among extracellular pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which many bacteria disrupt phagocyte function remain unclear. Here, we have shown that the respiratory pathogen
Christopher B. Hergott, Aoife M. Roche, Nikhil A. Naidu, Clementina Mesaros, Ian A. Blair, Jeffrey N. Weiser
Inflammasome activation and caspase-1–dependent (CASP1-dependent) processing and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 are critical events at the interface of the bacterial pathogen
Katrin N. Koch, Mara L. Hartung, Sabine Urban, Andreas Kyburz, Anna S. Bahlmann, Judith Lind, Steffen Backert, Christian Taube, Anne Müller
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) comprises a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations that alter the function of lysosome-related organelles. Pulmonary fibrosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with subtypes HPS-1 and HPS-4, which both result from defects in biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex 3 (BLOC-3). The prototypic chitinase-like protein chitinase 3–like–1 (CHI3L1) plays a protective role in the lung by ameliorating cell death and stimulating fibroproliferative repair. Here, we demonstrated that circulating CHI3L1 levels are higher in HPS patients with pulmonary fibrosis compared with those who remain fibrosis free, and that these levels associate with disease severity. Using murine HPS models, we also determined that these animals have a defect in the ability of CHI3L1 to inhibit epithelial apoptosis but exhibit exaggerated CHI3L1-driven fibroproliferation, which together promote HPS fibrosis. These divergent responses resulted from differences in the trafficking and effector functions of two CHI3L1 receptors. Specifically, the enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis was due to abnormal localization of IL-13Rα2 as a consequence of dysfunctional BLOC-3–dependent membrane trafficking. In contrast, the fibrosis was due to interactions between CHI3L1 and the receptor CRTH2, which trafficked normally in BLOC-3 mutant HPS. These data demonstrate that CHI3L1-dependent pathways exacerbate pulmonary fibrosis and suggest CHI3L1 as a potential biomarker for pulmonary fibrosis progression and severity in HPS.
Yang Zhou, Chuan Hua He, Erica L. Herzog, Xueyan Peng, Chang-Min Lee, Tung H. Nguyen, Mridu Gulati, Bernadette R. Gochuico, William A. Gahl, Martin L. Slade, Chun Geun Lee, Jack A. Elias